End “Excited Delirium”



Physicians for Human Rights

U.S. Medical Association Statements

American Psychiatric Association

American Medical Association

American Academy of Emergency Medicine

College of American Pathologists

National Association of Medical Examiners

American College of Medical Toxicologists

American College of Emergency Physicians

International Medical Association Statements

Royal College of Pathologists

Royal College of Psychiatrists

Academic Articles

Kenneth Weiss and Cristina Lanzillotta, “The Case Against ‘Excited Delirium,’ The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, May 2023: https://journals.lww.com/jonmd/Abstract/2023/05000/The_Case_Against__Excited_Delirium_.1.aspx

Brooks Walsh, Isaac Agboola, Edouard Coupet Jr., John Rozel, Ambrose Wong, “Revisiting ‘Excited Delirium’: Does the Diagnosis Reflect and Promote Racial Bias?” Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, March 2023: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8b27k859

Kevin Fiscella, Debra Pinals, Cleveland Shields, “‘Excited delirium,’ erroneous concepts, dehumanizing language, false narratives, and threat to Black lives,” Academic Emergency Medicine, July 2022, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35286005

Paul Appelbaum, “Excited Delirium, Ketamine, and Deaths in Police Custody,” Law & Psychiatry, May 11, 2022: https://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/epdf/10.1176/appi.ps.20220204

Altaf Saadi, Joanna Naples-Mitchell, Brianna da Silva Bhatia, Michele Heisler, “End the use of ‘excited delirium’ as a cause of death in police custody,” The Lancet, March 2, 2022: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(22)00410-X/fulltext

Osagie Obasogie, “Excited Delirium and Police Use of Force,” Virginia Law Review, December 2021: https://www.virginialawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/Obasogie_Book_107.pdf

Ellen Strömmer, Wendy Leith, Maurice Zeegers, Michael Freeman, “The role of restraint in fatal excited delirium: a research synthesis and pooled analysis,” Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology, December 2020: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32827300

Police Department Policies

Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Police Department



Family Advocacy

Justice for Angelo Quinto


“I’m So Excited – But Don’t Call It Excited Delirium,” SGEM XTRA, May 6, 2023: https://thesgem.com/2023/05/sgem-xtra-im-so-excited-but-dont-call-it-excited-delirium

“Travon Unravels the Racist Roots of Excited Delirium,” The Untold Story, October 25, 2022: https://omny.fm/shows/the-untold-story-policing-1/travon-unravels-the-racist-roots-of-excited-deliri

“Bonus: Two physicians on excited delirium,” Stat News (Color Code Podcast), May 23, 2022: https://soundcloud.com/stat-color-code/bonus-two-physicians-on-excited-delirium

Nicholas St. Fleur, “A ‘city on fire’: How Miami shaped a disputed diagnosis used to justify deaths in police custody,” Stat News (Color Code Podcast), May 16, 2022: https://www.statnews.com/2022/05/16/excited-delirium-roots-of-disputed-diagnosis-used-to-justify-deaths-in-police-custody


Richard Burns: Exposed: Last Writes